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A rotary evaporator is a device used in Chemical Laboratories for efficient and gentle removal of solvents from heat sensitive samples by evaporation.
The vacuum evaporators as a class function because lowering the pressure lowers the boiling points of component liquids in it. Generally the component liquids of interest in application of rotary evaporation are solvents that one desires to remove from a sample after an extraction process, for instance, following a natural product isolation or a step in an organic synthesis. Use of a Rota - Evaporator therefore allows liquid solvents to be removed without excessive heating of what are often complex and sensitive solvent - solute combinations.
The main components of rotary evaporators are:
Motor unit which rotates the evaporation flask containing sample material.
A vapour duct which acts both as axis for sample rotation and a vacuum tight conduit for the vapour being drawn off of the sample.
A vacuum system (not an integral part of the equipment) to substantially reduce the pressure within the evaporator system.
A heated fluid (water/thermic fluid) bath to heat the sample being evaporated.
A condenser with double coil through which the coolant passes.
A condensate collecting flask at the bottom of the condenser, to collect the distilling solvent after it re-condenses.
A mechanical or motorised mechanism to quickly lift the evaporation flask from the heating bath (or lower the heating bath also) so that the evaporation flask does not remain in contact with bath if not required.
The centrifugal force and the frictional force between the wall of the rotating flask and the liquid sample result in the formation of a thin film of warm solvent being spread over a large surface,
The forces created by the rotation suppress violent, un-predicted boiling/bumping.
Allows quick and gentle evaporation of solvents from most samples.
Low temperature and vacuum control also help in curbing bumping/foaming during evaporation process.
Distillation of solvents.
Concentration of Solutions and Suspensions.
Crystallization or Re - Crystallization.
Synthesis and Purifying of Fine Chemicals.
Recycling of solvents.
Powder and Granules Drying.